The British and North American
Royal Mail Steam Packet Company

(usually known as the Cunard Line)

The Cunard Steamship Fleet
1849




The Halifax Express (as it was known at the time) or the Nova Scotia Pony Express (as it is now known), which operated for nine months in 1849, carried Associated Press news dispatches from Halifax to Victoria Beach, in Nova Scotia.

It is clear that this Express service carried Associated Press messages only — no mail. The Royal Mail was far too heavy to be carried by a single horse, and the contract specified that Cunard, not AP, was the mail carrier from Liverpool through to Boston or New York.

In 1849 there was a complex system of regularly-scheduled communication between London on the east side of the North Atlantic Ocean, and several locations on the west side of the North Atlantic, including Halifax, Pictou, Quebec, Boston, and New York.

The main link in that system was the Cunard steamship fleet, which, under contract with the British Admiralty, carried the Royal Mail and news across the North Atlantic, between Liverpool in England, and Halifax, Boston, and New York in North America. Cunard's ships also carried freight and any passengers who wanted to make the trip, but the regular mail service was the reason the British Government was willing to pay Cunard a large subsidy to operate his transatlantic transportation system. In 1849, Cunard's annual subsidy for carriage of the Royal Mail across the North Atlantic was £173,340.

In April 1848 Cunard's average time from Liverpool to New York (including the stop at Halifax) was down to 12 days 22 hours. In 1851, Cunard averaged 11 days 12 hours eastbound, and 12 days 9 hours westbound.

The Nova Scotia Pony Express operated in very close association with Cunard's North Atlantic steamship service; the pony express runs were operated immediately after the arrival of one of the Cunard Royal Mail ships at Halifax. This webpage describes the Cunard steamship fleet as it existed during 1849.




In 1849, Cunard had seven steamships to maintain the schedule on the North Atlantic Royal Mail service. In alphabetical order, these were:
America
Caledonia
Cambria
Canada
Europa
Hibernia
Niagara


Cunard ship silouhette 1849
The newest, largest, and fastest (in 1849)
were America, Canada, Europa, and Niagara.






Cunard Steamships
Engine Power

1849

Ship Engine
Power
America, Canada, Europa, Niagara 1800 IHP
Hibernia, Cambria 1040 IHP
Caledonia, Columbia 740 IHP
Each ship was powered by two one-cylinder engines.
The figure given is the power of the two engines combined.
Source: Cunard and the North Atlantic, 1840-1973:
A History of Shipping and Financial Management

by Francis E. Hyde, MacMillan, 1975, SBN 333173139

Steam Engine IHP

IHP means Indicated HorsePower.

In the days of reciprocating (piston in cylinder) steam engines, a Steam Engine Indicator was a sophisticated scientific instrument frequently used to measure the power output of an engine.

For example, if a ship owner wanted proof that a particular engine was delivering the power that the manufacturer claimed, the usual method, especially for large engines such as those used for ship propulsion, was to take an Indicator Diagram.

The Engine Indicator was an instrument that was set up beside the engine to be tested, the engine was started and run under load, and the Indicator produced graphs on paper that showed the steam pressure inside the engine cylinder plotted against piston position. As the piston travelled back and forth in the cylinder, the instrument graphed the steam pressure acting against the piston.

The indicator graph was a closed loop for each return stroke (revolution) of the engine. The area enclosed in the loop could be interpreted so as to provide an accurate measure of the energy output for each piston stroke. Then this energy per stroke was multiplied by the engine speed in revolutions per minute to yield the engine power output.

The usual procedure was to take several indicator diagrams for the engine under test, at various throttle positions and valve cutoff settings, and at various steam pressures from somewhat below to somewhat above the design pressure. An analysis of these indicator diagrams would provide reliable measures of the engine power under various operating conditions.

Indicator results were accepted as trustworthy by engine manufacturers and operators alike, and, in case of serious disputes, the courts would accept indicator diagrams taken by competent technicians as legal proof of engine performance.

The use of "IHP" means these power outputs were actual measured performances, not just something stamped on a nameplate by a manufacturer.



References:
Steam Engine Pressure-Volume Diagram
    http://home.new.rr.com/trumpetb/loco/steampv.html


The New England Wireless and Steam Museum, East Greenwich, Rhode Island
Indicator diagram taken from one of the museum's steam engines
    http://users.ids.net/~newsm/steam-engines/greene.html


A steam-indicator is a device for plotting the pressure in the cylinder of a steam engine as a function of the phase of the engine's working cycle...
    http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Horizon/1404/patchas.html


Whatever the type of indicator, the resulting diagram was always in the shape of a boot. The highest part shows the pressure as the steam entered the cylinder...
    http://www.greatwestern.org.uk/basic8.htm


Indicator: An instrument designed to measure and record the variation in the cylinder pressure of steam engines, pumps, etc., throughout the entire length of stroke...
    http://titanic-model.com/glossary/i.shtml


R.M.S. America

America
1848 - 1875 in Cunard service

Launched 13 May 1847
Builder: Robert Steele & Co., Greenock (Glasgow), Scotland
1,826 gross tons
Dimensions: 76.5m x 11.6m
One funnel
Three masts
Wood hull
Propulsion: Paddle (sidewheel)
Two side lever jet condensing reciprocating steam engines,
          built by Robert Napier, Glasgow
          670 horsepower [500 kilowatts]
          Normal working steam pressure: 18 pounds per square inch [120 kPa]
          Four boilers, flue (fire-tube) type
          Sixteen furnaces consuming 60 tons of coal per day
          Bunker capacity: 450 tons (7.5 days at normal speed)
Service speed: 10 knots [18.5 km/h]
Fuel consumption: 7.3 kilometres per ton of coal
Accomodation: 140 First Class passengers
Crew: 90
Cargo capacity: 450 tons

In 1847 it became evident to the British government that the postal facilities had become too limited for the demands arising from the rapidly extending commercial relations between Great Britain and America, and they wisely determined to double the Atlantic mail service. A new contract was entered into with the Cunard Company whereby a vessel of not less than 400 horsepower, capable of carrying guns of the highest calibre, should leave Liverpool every Saturday for New York and Boston alternately. To accomplish this new agreement four new ships were built: America, Niagara, Europa and Canada. These ships were the first to use navigation lights at night, port red, starboard green, and foremasthead white.

America was launched in May 1847 and on 15 April 1848 departed Liverpool on its maiden voyage to New York via Halifax. On subsequent voyages it alternated its destination between New York and Boston. During December 1856 it suffered serious storm damage near Cape Clear but made it back to Liverpool. America held the Liverpool to Boston record for some years. In 1863 America was hired by the Allan Line and began to sail from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. It served Cunard again in 1866 before becoming a sailing vessel with the new name of Coalgacondor. It was finally scrapped in 1875.


R.M.S. Caledonia

Caledonia
1840 - 1851 in Cunard service

Launched: 1840
Builder: R.Wood, Glasgow, Scotland
1,138 gross tons
Dimensions: 63.1m x 10.4m
One funnel
Three masts
Wood hull
Propulsion: Paddle (sidewheel)
Power: Two side lever reciprocating steam engines, built by Robert Napier, Glasgow
Fuel: Coal
Service speed: 9 knots [16 km/h]
Accomodation: 115 First Class passengers

On winning the government contract the newly formed Cunard Company began a fortnightly mail service between Liverpool and Halifax, Boston and Quebec. The vessels employed under this contract were to be of such a build that they might be available as troopships, and for transporting stores in times of war. Four steamers, of similar dimensions, were immediately commenced: Britannia, Acadia, Caledonia and Columbia.

Caledonia was launched in 1840, and on 19 September 1840 departed Liverpool on its maiden voyage to Halifax and Boston. It continued this service until November 1849 and early in 1850 it was sold to the Spanish Navy. In 1851 it was wrecked near Havanna.


R.M.S. Cambria

Cambria
1845 - 1875 in Cunard service

Launched 1 August 1844
Builder: Robert Steele & Co., Greenock (Glasgow), Scotland
1,423 gross tons
Dimensions: 66.7m x 10.7m
One funnel
Three masts
Wood hull
Propulsion: Paddle (sidewheel)
Two side lever reciprocating steam engines, built by Robert Napier, Glasgow
Service speed: 9 knots [16 km/h]
Accomodation: 120 First Class passengers

The four early steamers, Britannia, Acadia, Caledonia and Columbia, were soon reinforced by two others when it was found that increasing traffic demanded extension of the mail service. Hibernia and Cambria were larger ships with increased power and more passenger and cargo capacity than their predecessors. When they were originally commissioned they were barque-rigged, but like the rest of the paddle-wheel steamers so built the third mast was soon done away with.

Cambria was launched on 1 August 1844 and on 4 January 1845 departed Liverpool on its maiden voyage to Halifax and Boston. From 1848 onwards it began to alternate its destination between New York and Boston. In 1852 the mizzen mast was removed, and the standing rigging was converted to brig rigging with square sails on each mast. In March 1854 it was requisitioned by the British government to serve as a troop transport in the Crimean War, travelling first to Varna and then to the Crimea. After this service it was refitted and on 29 March 1856 resumed the Liverpool to Boston / New York service. In November 1856 Cambria was moved to the Marseilles-Malta route for the European and Australian Royal Mail Company (which had sub-sontracted two routes — Marseilles-Malta and Southampton-Alexandria — to the British and North American Royal Mail Company). In January 1860 it was sold at Malta to Agostino Bertani of Palermo, Sicily. In June 1860 Cambria was sold to Giuseppe Garibaldi to be used as a troopship, and on 17th November that year it was taken over by the Sardinian Navy. It served the Italian Navy from March 1861 until it was sold for scrap in March 1875.


R.M.S. Canada

Canada
1848 - 1883 in Cunard service

Launched June 1848
Builder: Robert Steele & Co., Greenock (Glasgow), Scotland
1,831 gross tons
Dimensions: 76.5m x 11.6m
One funnel
Three masts
Wood hull
Propulsion: Paddle (sidewheel)
Two side lever jet condensing reciprocating steam engines,
          built by Robert Napier, Glasgow
          670 horsepower [500 kilowatts]
          Normal working steam pressure: 18 pounds per square inch [120 kPa]
          Four boilers, flue (fire-tube) type
          Sixteen furnaces consuming 60 tons of coal per day
          Bunker capacity: 450 tons (7.5 days at normal speed)
Service speed: 10 knots [18.5 km/h]
Fuel consumption: 7.3 kilometres per ton of coal
Accomodation: 140 First Class passengers
Crew: 90
Cargo capacity: 450 tons

In 1847 it became evident to the British Government that the postal facilities had become too limited for the demands arising from the rapidly extending commercial relations between Britain and America, and they wisely determined to double the Atlantic mail service. A new contract was entered into with the Cunard Company whereby a vessel of not less than 400 horsepower, capable of carrying guns of the highest calibre, should leave Liverpool every Saturday for New York and Boston alternately. To accomplish this new agreement four new ships were built: America, Niagara, Europa and Canada.

Canada was launched in June 1848 and on 25 November 1848 departed Liverpool on its maiden voyage to Halifax and New York, and on subsequent voyages varied its final destination between New York and Boston. In October 1850 it was stranded near Halifax but was undamaged and in April 1854 it sank the brig Belle with the loss of two lives. On November 1854 it collided with the SS Ocean near Boston with the loss of three lives. It made its final voyage from Liverpool to Boston in December 1865 and became the sailing ship Mississipi in 1867. It was scrapped in 1883.


R.M.S. Europa

Europa
1848 - 1867 in Cunard service

Launched September 1847
Builder: Robert Steele & Co., Greenock (Glasgow), Scotland
1,834 gross tons
Dimensions: 76.5m x 11.6m
One funnel
Three masts
Wood hull
Propulsion: Paddle (sidewheel)
Two side lever jet condensing reciprocating steam engines,
          built by Robert Napier, Glasgow
          670 horsepower [500 kilowatts]
          Normal working steam pressure: 18 pounds per square inch [120 kPa]
          Four boilers, flue (fire-tube) type
          Sixteen furnaces consuming 60 tons of coal per day
          Bunker capacity: 450 tons (7.5 days at normal speed)
Service speed: 10 knots [18.5 km/h]
Fuel consumption: 7.3 kilometres per ton of coal
Accomodation: 140 First Class passengers
Crew: 90
Cargo capacity: 450 tons

In 1847 it became apparent to the government that the postal facilities had become too limited for the demands arising from the rapidly extending commercial relations between Britain and America, and they wisely determined to double the Atlantic mail service. A new contract was entered into with the Cunard Company whereby a vessel of not less than 400 horsepower, capable of carrying the highest calibre guns, should leave Liverpool every Saturday for New York and Boston alternately. To accomplish this new agreement four new ships were built: America, Niagara, Europa and Canada.

Europa was launched in September 1847 and departed Liverpool on its maiden voyage on 17 July 1848 to Boston and Halifax; the final destination on subsequent voyages varied between New York and Boston. In June 1849 it collided with the emigrant ship Charles Bartlett which sank with the loss of 135 lives. The mizzen mast was removed in 1853 and in 1854 it became a Crimean War transport. In August 1858 it collided with another Cunard vessel, Arabia, off Cape Race and both were damaged. In February 1866 it made its last voyage from Liverpool to Boston and was sold the following year.


R.M.S. Hibernia

Hibernia
1843 - 1868 in Cunard service

Gross Tonnage - 1,422
Dimensions - 66.7m x 10.7m
Number of funnels - 1
Number of masts - 3
Construction - Wood hull
Propulsion - Paddle (sidewheel)
Engines - Side lever, two, built by Robert Napier, Glasgow
Fuel - Coal
Service speed - 9 knots
Builder - Robert Steele & Son, Greenock
Accomodation - 120 First Class passengers

The four early steamers, Britannia, Acadia, Caledonia and Columbia, were soon reinforced by two others when it was found that increasing traffic demanded extension of the mail service. Hibernia and Cambria were larger ships with increased power and more passenger and cargo capacity than their predecessors. When they were originally commissioned they were barque-rigged, but like the rest of the paddle-wheel steamers so built the third mast was soon done away with.

Hibernia was built in 1842 and departed Liverpool on its maiden voyage on 19 April 1843 to Halifax and Boston. In August 1849 it was stranded near Halifax but the damage was repaired at New York. In August 1850 it made its last voyage on this route before being sold to the Spanish Navy to become Habanois. It was lost in 1868.


R.M.S. Niagara

Niagara
1848 - 1875 in Cunard service

Launched August 1847
Builder: Robert Steele & Co., Greenock (Glasgow), Scotland
1,824 gross tons
Dimensions: 76.5m x 11.6m
One funnel
Three masts
Wood hull
Propulsion: Paddle (sidewheel)
Two side lever jet condensing reciprocating steam engines,
          built by Robert Napier, Glasgow
          670 horsepower [500 kilowatts]
          Normal working steam pressure: 18 pounds per square inch [120 kPa]
          Four boilers, flue (fire-tube) type
          Sixteen furnaces consuming 60 tons of coal per day
          Bunker capacity: 450 tons (7.5 days at normal speed)
Service speed: 10 knots [18.5 km/h]
Fuel consumption: 7.3 kilometres per ton of coal
Accomodation: 140 First Class passengers
Crew: 90
Cargo capacity: 450 tons

In 1847 it became evident to the British Government that the postal facilities had become too limited for the demands arising from the rapidly extending commercial relations between Britain and America, and they wisely determined to double the Atlantic mail service. A new contract was entered into with the Cunard Company whereby a vessel of not less than 400 horsepower, capable of carrying guns of the highest calibre, should leave Liverpool every Saturday for New York and Boston alternately. To accomplish this new agreement four new ships were built: America, Niagara, Europa and Canada.

Niagara was launched in August 1847 and on 20 May 1848 departed Liverpool on its maiden voyage to Halifax and Boston; subsequent voyages went to either New York or Boston. In 1854 it was used as a Crimean War transport. It ran form Liverpool to Havre in 1866 but was then sold without a change in name and its engines were removed. On 6 June 1875 it was wrecked near South Stack, Anglesey.

Niagara held the eastbound Boston and New York speed records and was a particularly useful transport in the Crimean War, carrying a tremendous number of troops with their wives and children.

[Excerpted from http://www.cunardline.com/scripts/cunard/getfleet.idc ]


Cunard's Schedule
Autumn 1850

March - December 1849
Cunard's schedule was similar to this
one departure each week

Cunard Steamship schedule, 1850
Cunard Steamship Schedule, 1850

Text of this Cunard advertisement:

From Boston From New York
THE BRITISH AND NORTH AMERICAN ROYAL
MAIL STEAMSHIPS
      Between New York and Liverpool, direct, and be-
tween Boston and Liverpool, calling at Halifax to land and receive
mails and passengers.
ASIA
AMERICA
CANADA
CAMBRIA
AFRICA
EUROPA
NIAGARA
HIBERNIA
CALEDONIA
ASIA, Capt. Judkins, from New York, Wed. September 25th, 1850
CANADA, Capt. Harrison, from Boston, Wed. October 2nd, 1850
NIAGARA, Capt. Stone, from New York, Wed. October 9th, 1850
CAMBRIA, Capt. Leitch, from Boston, Wed. October 16th, 1850
EUROPA, Capt. Lott, from New York, Wed. October 23rd, 1850
AMERICA, Capt. Shannon, from Boston, Wed. October 30th, 1850
ASIA, Capt. Judkins, from New York, Wed. November 6th, 1850
CANADA, Capt. Harrison, from Boston, Wed. November 13th, 1850
AFRICA, Capt. Ryrie, from New York, Wed. November 20th, 1850
An experienced surgeon on board.
No berth secured until paid for.
Freight will be charged on specie beyond an amount for personal
expenses.
All Letters and Newspapers must pass through the Post Office.
Passage from New York or Boston to Liverpool, first class, £120;
second cabin £70
For freight or passage apply to:
E. Cunard, Jr., 38 Broadway
French, German, and other Foreign Goods received and
brought in common with British goods.
Through bills of lading are given in Havre for New York, and the
same will be done in New York for Havre.
After the first of April, 1851, the rate of freight by the above
Steamers from Liverpool will be materially reduced.

Source: This advertisement was reproduced in the book Spanning the Atlantic, by F. Lawrence Babcock, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1931. The original source is not known, but is believed to be a New York publication (the agent's address is "38 Broadway").


Large Steam Engines for Ships
1849 - 1850

Section, side lever steam engine

Above is a section through one of the the side-lever steam engines installed in the Cunard steamship America. Cunard bought eight of these engines, two each for America, Europa, Niagara, and Canada. (To get an idea of what these engines looked like, see below.)
Source: Steam at Sea: Two Centuries of Steam-Powered Ships by Denis Griffiths, Conway Maritime Press, 1997, ISBN 0851776663.

Side lever steam engine, Collins liner Atlantic, 1849
Above is a view of the engine room of the Collins liner Atlantic. This view gives a good idea of the appearance and size of the side-lever steam engines installed in the late 1840s and early 1850s in ships designed for the transatlantic service. Atlantic's engines were about twenty percent larger than the engines bought by Cunard for America, Europa, Niagara, and Canada. Except for the slightly smaller size, the 670-horsepower Cunard engines were very much like this 800-horsepower Collins engine. In the 1850s, Edward Knight Collins was the main competitor of Cunard's North Atlantic service. In 1847, he negotiated an annual subsidy of $385,000 from the United States government, set up the New York and Liverpool United States Mail Steamship Company, and ordered four 2,885-ton, wooden-hulled side-wheel steamships, the world's largest. The first vessel of this fleet was named Atlantic, and the others were Pacific, Baltic, and Arctic. Atlantic and Pacific were launched on the same day, February 1, 1849. The paddle wheels were 36 feet in diameter, with 36 paddles. Each ship was powered by two side-lever 800-horsepower [600 kW] engines. Each engine had one cylinder 95 inches (nearly eight feet) [241 cm] in diameter, supplied with steam at a pressure of seventeen pounds per square inch [120 kPa] (which then was at the bleeding edge of boiler technology). When the ship was running on both cylinders at full power, about sixteen revolutions per minute, and a little assistance from auxiliary sails, Collins' steamers could make 12 or 13 knots (23 to 25 km/h) most of the time. Their coal consumption was enormous, one ton for every 265 revolutions of the paddle wheels, or 85 tons in 24 hours; in a round trip one of these ships burned a quantity of coal almost equal to the ship's tonnage. Put in modern terms, they got about 6 kilometres (4 miles) to the ton. Atlantic sailed for Liverpool on her maiden voyage on April 27, 1850. She returned to New York in a record ten days sixteen hours. By then, captains, owners, and the newspapers could see it coming — a transatlantic trip in under ten days. In 1851, Cunard averaged 11 days 12 hours eastbound, and 12 days 9 hours westbound; Collins averaged 10 days 21 hours eastbound and 11 days 3 hours westbound. In April 1852, from Liverpool, Pacific reached Sandy Hook in nine days twenty hours fifteen minutes, the first ship, sail or steam, to cross the Atlantic to New York in under ten days.
Sources: The Magnificent Failure, by E. Milburn Carver, (a history of the Collins Steamship Company), originally published in Yankee Magazine (date not known), anthologized in Yankees Under Steam, edited by Austin N. Stevens, published by Yankee, Inc, Dublin, New Hampshire, 1970; and Steam at Sea: Two Centuries of Steam-Powered Ships by Denis Griffiths, Conway Maritime Press, 1997, ISBN 0851776663.

Note: The Collins ship Atlantic, launched in 1849, was not the passenger ship Atlantic which was wrecked on April 1, 1873, on rocks close to Meagher's Island, near the small village of Prospect, on the shore of Nova Scotia.





Cunard ship America entering Halifax Harbour, February 1859
Cunard steamship America entering Halifax Harbour on February 14, 1859. Citadel Hill is seen in the background. From the Halifax Herald, February 1, 1924. The clipping bears the handwritten notation: "Navigation partially closed by ice, 14-19 February 1859." The mottled appearance of this image is an artifact — a Moire pattern arising from the interaction of the pixel structure of the digitized image with the halftone structure of the original newspaper image.


Notes

R.M.S. was often used with these ship names. It meant "Royal Mail Ship" or "Royal Mail Steamship". This was a special category of vessel, worthy of special notice.

Britannia and Acadia made their last trips across the North Atlantic for Cunard in November 1848, thus they do not appear in the Pony Express story.

Britannia was launched on 5 February 1840. It departed Liverpool on its maiden voyage to Halifax and Boston on 4 July 1840. The passage took 14 days 8 hours, which was very fast time for those days. During a voyage in February 1844 Britannia became trapped in the ice in Boston Harbour but at their own expense the citizens of the town cut an escape channel, seven miles [eleven kilometres] long for the ship. Later, in September 1847, it was stranded at Cape Race but was repaired at New York. November 1848 saw Britannia's last voyage on this service. In March 1849 Britannia sailed from Liverpool to Bremen and was renamed Barbarossa, part of the former German Confederation Navy. In 1852 it was transferred to the Prussian Navy under the same name. In 1880 it was sunk when acting as a target ship.

On 4 August 1840 Cunard steamship Acadia began her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Halifax and Boston, and continued in this service until November 1848. On 9 March 1849 she began sailing from Liverpool to Bremen and on the first trip became stranded on Terschelling Island in Holland. She was soon refloated and became part of the former German Confederation Navy under the name Erzherzog Johann. In 1852 she was refitted by W.A.Fritze & Co. and Karl Lehmkuhl, and renamed Germania. In August 1853 she began the Bremen - New York service which she maintained until the end of 1854. In 1855 she was chartered to the British Government as a Crimean War transport. She was finally scrapped at London in 1858.



More about Steam Engine History

The Story of Steam Fred Dibnah's excellent website
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/dibnah/steam.shtml


Animated Steam Machines Fred Dibnah's colourful animations show how steam machines worked. One of these animations shows the working of the machinery of a paddle-wheel steamship.
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/dibnah/machines.shtml


Steamboat Links An extensive collection of links to information about all aspects of marine steam...
    http://www.pcez.com/~artemis/SLAlinks.htm


Kew Bridge Steam Museum London, England.
The Museum is housed in a magnificent 19th century Pumping Station and centres around the station's five world famous Cornish Beam Engines, two of which can be seen, in steam, every weekend. Originally used to pump West London's water supply for more than a century, one of them, the "Grand Junction 90," is the world's largest working beam engine...
    http://www.kbsm.org/



More About the
Nova Scotia Pony Express

The 1849 Nova Scotia Pony Express
    /ponyexpress/ponyexdx.html


Photographs of the Nova Scotia Pony Express monument
    /annapco/ponyexmon.html


The Pony Express Plaque Installed in 1949 100th Anniversary
    /ponyexpress/ponyex04.html


Halifax Express The Novascotian, 26 February 1849
    /ponyexpress/ponyex66.html


Halifax Express The British Colonist, 10 March 1849
    /ponyexpress/ponyex67.html


Halifax Express The Acadian Recorder, 10 March 1849
    /ponyexpress/ponyex68.html


The Second Run of the Nova Scotia Pony Express 8 March 1849
    /ponyexpress/ponyex09.html


Nova Scotia Pony Express 1849, by John Regan 5 January 1912
    /ponyexpress/ponyex01.html


Nova Scotia Pony Express 1849, by George Mullane 1 Jan 1914
    /ponyexpress/ponyex02.html


Nova Scotia Pony Express 1849, by Murrille Schofield 1973
    /ponyexpress/ponyex03.html


Nova Scotia Pony Express, by D. A. MacNeill April 1940
    /ponyexpress/ponyex16.html


Nova Scotia Pony Express, by CBC Radio 11 June 1999
    /ponyexpress/ponyex20.html


Burket's Exchange News Room Halifax 1848-1849
    /ponyexpress/ponyex17.html


Pony Express Editorial, Halifax Chronicle-Herald 15 Feb 1999
    /ponyexpress/ponyex06.html


Radio Station X1J1F Victoria Beach, Nova Scotia, 1999
set up in recognition of the 150th anniversary
of the 1849 Nova Scotia Pony Express
    /ponyexpress/ponyex11.html


The Oregon Boundary dispute, 1849
Britain and USA close to war – the Nova Scotia Pony Express
was the fastest link carrying breaking news to U.S.A.
    /ponyexpress/ponyex19.html






Go To:   Nova Scotia History
    http://alts.net/ns1625/histindx.html

Photographs of War Memorials, Historic Monuments and Plaques in Nova Scotia
    /remem/plaques.html

Go To:   Nova Scotia Quotations
    http://alts.net/ns1625/quotes.html

Go To:   History of Telephone Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://alts.net/ns1625/telephone.html

Go To:   History of Railway Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://alts.net/ns1625/railways.html

Go To:   History of Electric Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://alts.net/ns1625/electric.html

Go To:   History of Automobiles in Nova Scotia
    http://alts.net/ns1625/automobiles.html

Go To:   Home Page
    /index.html




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